Freeze-Thaw CBM Water Treatment System

Freezing is a crystallization process that can be used to purify water. When salts or other constituents are dissolved in water, the freezing point of the solution is lowered below 32”F, the freezing point of pure water. Partial freezing occurs when the solution is cooled to below 32”F, but not below the freezing point of thesolution. Relatively pure ice crystals form, and an unfrozen solution, or brine, containing elevated concentrations of the chemical constituents is also formed.

Because of the presence of these chemical constituents in the brine, it has a higher density than that of the purified ice and, therefore, readily flows from the ice. Thus, the purified ice and the brine are naturally separated. The advantages of natural freezing for water purification are that the required refrigeration is provided at no cost and the ice pack is repeatedly subjected to freeze-thaw (IT) cycling. This repeated FI cycling promotes the formation of large ice crystals, which, in turn, increase the permeability of the ice pack. This increased permeability allows the brine to flow more readily through the purified ice pack.

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Construction Cost Estimate                      
Input                 Output          
General Conditions & Project Information Qty  Unit Comments     Cost Item Material  Labor  Equip  Total  Total Cost w/ OH&P
% of Total
   Average Labor Rate   $/Hr Incl OT, 50 hr work week    
   Total Labor Manhours   MH        General Conditions  
   Average Crew Size   EA        Site Piping  
   Percent Local Hire   %        Ponds, Storage Tanks  
   Site Cost Factor     From Village Data Table    Pump Building  
   Project Duration   Weeks        Pumps & Equipment  
Site Information              Discharge Point  
   No. of Wells     EA From Village Data Table    Subtotal    
   Well Spacing     LF Avg distance between wells                
   Water Produced per Well   GPM Peak flow rate                  
   Distance Well field to Holding Pond LF          Subcontractor Markup   (Applied to Total Cost w/ OH&P Col)  
   Holding Pond to Pump House   LF            General Contractor OH&P      
   Pump House to Freezing Pad   LF            General Contractor Bond & Ins      
   Pump House to Treated Water   LF            Engineering & Design, A/E Fees      
   Pump House to Brine Storage   LF            Estimators Contingency      
   Treated Water to Discharge Point LF            Total Estimated Project Cost        
   Pipe Bury Depth     FT                    
Cost Estimate Details    
Item Description  Qty  Unit Materials Labor Equip Total  Total Cost w/ OH&P  
 Unit $   Total $   Unit Wt   Hr/Unit   Total Hrs   Total $  Cost Cost  
General Conditions                            
   Project Management, Scheduling, Timekeeping  Weeks       50    
   Supervision        Weeks       50    
   Subsistence, Room & Board, Camp Costs  ManDays $100.00            
   Travel, Round Trip      RT $1,000.00   8    
   Mobilization & Demobilization      Tons $1,000.00   2    
   Equipment        Weeks              
   Small Tools & Consumables (0.5% of Total $) 1  LS            
   Surface Freight        Tons $520.00   2.8    
   Air Freight        LBS $0.65   0.02    
   Field Engineering, Submittals, Record Dwgs 80  HRS       1    
   Commissioning (1.5% of Direct Cost)   1  LS       240      
   Contract Closeout, Training & O&M Manuals 1  LS       40    
   Warranties and Bonds     1  LS $2,500.00            
Site Piping   Type Size                          
   Between Wells    LF    
   Well to Holding Pond  LF    
   Holding Pond to Pumps  LF    
   Pumps to Freezing Pad  LF    
   Pumps to Treated Water  LF    
   Pumps to Brine Storage  LF    
   Treated Water to Discharge  LF    
   Land Acquisition, Pipeline  Acre            
   Site Prep, Clearing, Grading      Acre       16  
   Trench Excavation (Hyd. Exc. 5')    CY       0.05  
   Backfill  (w/ Excavated Matl)      CY       0.05  
   Bedding        CY $20.00 2,000 1.75  
   Insulation, 4" Rigid      MBF $42.00 2.0 0.10  
Ponds, Storage Tanks Gallons Depth                
   Feedwater Holding SF                    
   Freezing Pad   SF                    
   Treated Water   SF                    
   Brine Storage   SF                    
   Land Acquisition (Incl access) Factor: Acre            
   Site Prep, Clearing, Rough Grading   Acre       16  
     Excavation       CY       0.05  
     Liner Bedding       CY $19.80   1.75 $3.25  
     Insulation, 2" Rigid     MBF $42.00 2.0 100 $0.00  
     Dike Construction, Earth Moving   CY       0.20  
     Pond Liner, 45 Mil PolyPro     SF $1.50 2.0 $0.00  
Pump Building   SF                  
   Clearing & Grubbing, Rough Grading   SF        
   Foundation Excavation     LF        
   Perimeter Foundation     LF $85.00    
   Pre Engineered Metal Building, Frame   SF $7.60 8.00  
   Metal Insulated Siding Panels 4"   SF $5.50 4.50  
   Metal Insulated Roofing Panels   SF $6.50 5.50  
   General Requirements & Supervision   1 LS          
Pumps & Equipment                          
   Pumps  HP   2 EA $2,500.00 200.00    
   Piping       200 LF $5.00 2.00 0.36    
   Valves, Specialties, Gauges, Fittings, etc   1 LS $5,000.00 500.00 40    
     Pump, TDS, Temperature Controls     Points $1,200.00 10.00 4.00    
     Central Equip, PLC's       1 LS $5,000.00 50.00    
     Programming, Training, O&M Manual       40 HRS       1.00    
     System Design, Programming       24 HRS       1.00    
   Commissioning, Startup       24 HRS       1.00    
Discharge Point, Outfall                          
   Site Prep, Clearing, Rough Grading   SF        
   Geofabric       SF $0.25 0.25 0.02    
   Sewer Rock, Riprap     CY $20.00   0.60 $0.00  
   Piping, Termination, Anchors, Spill Block   1 LS $1,000.00 400.00 40.00